Puntland Government of Somalia Â Â Â
PuntlandÂ (Somali:Â Buntlaand,Â Arabic:Â Ø£Ø±Ø¶ Ø§Ù„Ø¨Ù†Ø·â€Ž), officially theÂ Puntland State of SomaliaÂ (Somali:Â Maamul Goboleedka Buntlaand ee Soomaaliya), is a region in northeasternÂ Somalia, centered onÂ GaroweÂ in theÂ NugaalÂ province. Its leaders declared the territory anÂ autonomous stateÂ in 1998.Â
Puntland is bordered byÂ SomalilandÂ to its west, theÂ Gulf of AdenÂ in the north, theÂ Indian OceanÂ in the southeast, the centralÂ GalmudugÂ region of Somalia in the south, andÂ EthiopiaÂ in the southwest.
A third of Somalia’s population lives in the territory,which contains about a third of the nation’s geographical area.Â UnlikeÂ neighboringÂ North East Somalia , Puntland, as with all other regions in the country, does not seek outright independence from Somalia.
The name “Puntland” is derived from theÂ Land of PuntÂ mentioned byÂ ancient EgyptianÂ sources. The exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.
Following the outbreak of theÂ civil warÂ in 1991, a homegrown constitutional conference was held inÂ GaroweÂ in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area’s political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomousÂ Puntland State of Somaliawas subsequently officially established so as to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with both domestic and international partners.
As stipulated in Article 1 of theÂ Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region seeks the unity of theÂ Somali peopleÂ and adheres to aÂ federalÂ system of government.
The legal structure of Puntland consists of theÂ judiciary,Â legislativeÂ (House of Representatives) and theÂ executiveÂ (the President and his nominated council of Ministries) branches of government,
Though relatively peaceful, the region briefly experienced political unrest in 2001 when then President of Puntland,Â Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, Abdullahi Yusuf AhmedÂ when he was electedÂ President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office byÂ Mohamed Abdi Hashi, who served until January 2005 when he lost a re-election bid in parliament to GeneralÂ Mohamud Muse HersiÂ “Adde,
The President of Puntland isÂ Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, a former PhD candidate in the history department atÂ La Trobe UniversityÂ inÂ Melbourne,Â Australia. Farole was a cabinet member in Puntland’s government until a falling out with then president Muse
fourÂ PresidentsÂ of PuntlandÂ
Speakers of the Puntland Parliament
|Yusuf Haji Sa’id||1998â€“2004|
|Ahmed Ali Hashi||2004â€“2009|
|Abdirashid Mohamed Hersi||2009â€“Present|
On December 22, 2009, Puntland’sÂ parliamentÂ introduced a new state flag
Puntland’s new regional flag consists of three colors: white, blue and green.
- Top: the blue stripe with the white star in the center symbolizes theÂ Flag of Somalia
- Center: the white stripe in the center represents peace and stability in the region
- Bottom: the green stripe symbolizes the natural wealth of the Puntland State of Somalia
Puntland consists of the following regions,
Puntland is geographically situated in the
northeastern portion ofÂ Somalia. It is bordered by theÂ North West Â region of
Somalia to its west, theÂ Gulf of AdenÂ in the north, theÂ Indian OceanÂ in the southeast, the
centralÂ GalmudugÂ region
of Somalia in the south, andÂ EthiopiaÂ in the southwest. Puntland occupies a total land area of 212,510Â km2Â or roughly one-third of Somalia’s
Puntland government, the
Ministry of Education is responsible for developing and managing the region’s
educational needs. Â It is headed
by the Minister Mr Juxa , under whom a Vice Minister and Director General help
oversee a Post-Primary Education Division (PPED) and a Basic Education
Directorate (BED), among other boards.
The educational system of Puntland comprises two
years of Early Childhood Development (ECD), eight years ofÂ primary educationÂ (four years of
lower primary and four years of upper primary) and four years ofÂ secondary education.Â Tertiary educationÂ comprises an
average of four years,Â with the
region currently counting six major universities:Â Puntland State UniversityÂ inÂ Garowe, Puntland State University inÂ Galkacyo,Â Bosaso CollegeÂ inÂ Bosaso,Â East
Somalia UniversityÂ inÂ Qardho,Â Mogadishu UniversityÂ (Puntland
branch) in Bosaso,Â East Africa UniversityÂ inÂ Bosaso, andÂ Nugaal UniversityÂ inÂ Las Anod.Â Thus, it is a 2-4-4-4 system.
Puntland’s Ministry of Education also recognizesÂ non-formal educationÂ (NFE) andÂ technical/vocational education and trainingÂ (TVET) as
integral parts of the region’s educational system.
Demographics and religion
As of 2006, the population of Puntland is
estimated at 3.9 million inhabitants, 52% of whom areÂ nomads,
The region’s population growth rate is quite high
due in part to an influx of people from southern Somalia and from neighboring
countries. Currently, 30% of Puntland’s residents live in the fast growing
towns ofÂ Bosaso,Â Gardo,Â Garowe,Las,ano Buhodle,Badhan Â andÂ Galkacyo. Approximately 70% of the population
is also below the age of 30
TheÂ population densityÂ in Puntland is
estimated at about 18 persons per km2.
terms of public transportation, bus services
operate inÂ Bosaso,Â Garowe,Â Las Anod,Â GalkacyoÂ andÂ Qardho. Shuttle services between the region’s major towns
and adjacent hamlets are also available via different types of vehicles, such
as 4 wheel drives and light goods vehicles (LGV).
For air transportation, local airlines offer
flights to various domestic and international locations, such asÂ Djibouti,Â Addis Ababa,Â DubaiÂ andÂ Jeddah; they also provide flights for theÂ HajjÂ andÂ UmrahÂ pilgrimages. The most prominent
airlines in Puntland areÂ Jubba Airways, Osob Air andÂ Daallo Airlines, which operate fromÂ Bender Qassim
International AirportÂ inÂ BosasoÂ andÂ Galkacyo AirportÂ inÂ Galkacyo, among other places. In 2008, the
Puntland government signed a multi-million dollar deal withÂ Dubai‘s Lootah Group, a regional industrial group operating in the
Middle East and Africa. According to the agreement, the first phase of the
investment is worthÂ DhsÂ 170m and will see a set of new
companies established to operate, manage and build Bosaso’s free trade zone and
sea and airport facilities. The Bosaso Airport Company is slated to develop the
airport complex to meet international standards, including a new 3.4Â km
runway, main and auxiliary buildings, taxi and apron areas, and security
Puntland has 1600Â km of coastline, which isÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
abundant withÂ fishÂ and other
naturalÂ marine resources. However, after
the collapse of the Somali central government in 1991, the coast was left
unguarded against foreign intruders. As a result, many ships equipped with
heavyÂ trawlsÂ and other unlawful fishing
equipment have occupied in Puntland’s territorial waters. These ships violateÂ catch regulations, including some which keep their catch alive and stock them
in waters where fishing has been depleted. Puntland’s coastal authorities
continue to receive complaints from local fishermen about the damage being done
by these outsiders.
InÂ Las Khorey, there is a
medium sizeÂ fish processing plantÂ that produces
and processes great quantities of tuna fish. The fish factory’s products are of
commercial quality, and its tuna is consumed throughout Puntland and also
outside the region. Another fish processing plant is also being constructed in
Habo, which locals hope will reduce poverty and unemployment and improve the