Puntland first Constitution

Puntland Government of Somalia     

Puntland (Somali: Buntlaand, Arabic: أرض البنط‎), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Somali: Maamul Goboleedka Buntlaand ee Soomaaliya), is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe in the Nugaal province. Its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998. 

Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the central Galmudug region of Somalia in the south, and Ethiopia in the southwest.

A third of Somalia’s population lives in the territory,which contains about a third of the nation’s geographical area. Unlike  neighboring North East Somalia , Puntland, as with all other regions in the country, does not seek outright independence from Somalia.

The name “Puntland” is derived from the Land of Punt mentioned by ancient Egyptian sources. The exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.

Following the outbreak of the civil war in 1991, a homegrown constitutional conference was held in Garowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area’s political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somaliawas subsequently officially established so as to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with both domestic and international partners.

As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region seeks the unity of the Somali people and adheres to a federal system of government.

The legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary, legislative (House of Representatives) and the executive (the President and his nominated council of Ministries) branches of government,

Though relatively peaceful, the region briefly experienced political unrest in 2001 when then President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed  when he was elected President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Abdi Hashi, who served until January 2005 when he lost a re-election bid in parliament to General Mohamud Muse Hersi “Adde,

The President of Puntland is Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, a former PhD candidate in the history department at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Farole was a cabinet member in Puntland’s government until a falling out with then president Muse

four Presidents of Puntland 










Speakers of the Puntland Parliament




Yusuf Haji Sa’id 1998–2004
Ahmed Ali Hashi 2004–2009
Abdirashid Mohamed Hersi 2009–Present

On December 22, 2009, Puntland’s parliament introduced a new state flag

Puntland’s new regional flag consists of three colors: white, blue and green.

  • Top: the blue stripe with the white star in the center symbolizes the Flag of Somalia
  • Center: the white stripe in the center represents peace and stability in the region
  • Bottom: the green stripe symbolizes the natural wealth of the Puntland State of Somalia

Puntland consists of the following regions,



Puntland is geographically situated in the
northeastern portion of Somalia. It is bordered by the North West  region of
Somalia to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the
central Galmudug region
of Somalia in the south, and Ethiopia in the southwest. Puntland occupies a total land area of 212,510 km2 or roughly one-third of Somalia’s
geographical area.


Puntland government, the
Ministry of Education is responsible for developing and managing the region’s
educational needs.  It is headed
by the Minister Mr Juxa , under whom a Vice Minister and Director General help
oversee a Post-Primary Education Division (PPED) and a Basic Education
Directorate (BED), among other boards.

The educational system of Puntland comprises two
years of Early Childhood Development (ECD), eight years of primary education (four years of
lower primary and four years of upper primary) and four years of secondary education. Tertiary education comprises an
average of four years, with the
region currently counting six major universities: Puntland State University in Garowe, Puntland State University in Galkacyo, Bosaso College in Bosaso, East
Somalia University
 in Qardho,[38] Mogadishu University (Puntland
branch) in Bosaso, East Africa University in Bosaso, and Nugaal University in Las Anod. Thus, it is a 2-4-4-4 system.
Puntland’s Ministry of Education also recognizes non-formal education (NFE) and technical/vocational education and training (TVET) as
integral parts of the region’s educational system.

Demographics and religion

As of 2006, the population of Puntland is
estimated at 3.9 million inhabitants, 52% of whom are nomads,

The region’s population growth rate is quite high
due in part to an influx of people from southern Somalia and from neighboring
countries. Currently, 30% of Puntland’s residents live in the fast growing
towns of Bosaso, Gardo, Garowe,Las,ano Buhodle,Badhan  and Galkacyo. Approximately 70% of the population
is also below the age of 30

The population density in Puntland is
estimated at about 18 persons per km2.

As with the rest of Somalia, Islam is the main religion
of the Puntland region. With few exceptions, all residents of Puntland are Muslims.


terms of public transportation, bus services
operate in Bosaso, Garowe, Las Anod, Galkacyo and Qardho. Shuttle services between the region’s major towns
and adjacent hamlets are also available via different types of vehicles, such
as 4 wheel drives and light goods vehicles (LGV).

For air transportation, local airlines offer
flights to various domestic and international locations, such as Djibouti, Addis Ababa, Dubai and Jeddah; they also provide flights for the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. The most prominent
airlines in Puntland are Jubba Airways, Osob Air and Daallo Airlines, which operate from Bender Qassim
International Airport
 in Bosaso and Galkacyo Airport in Galkacyo, among other places. In 2008, the
Puntland government signed a multi-million dollar deal with Dubai‘s Lootah Group, a regional industrial group operating in the
Middle East and Africa. According to the agreement, the first phase of the
investment is worth Dhs 170m and will see a set of new
companies established to operate, manage and build Bosaso’s free trade zone and
sea and airport facilities. The Bosaso Airport Company is slated to develop the
airport complex to meet international standards, including a new 3.4 km
runway, main and auxiliary buildings, taxi and apron areas, and security


Puntland has 1600 km of coastline, which is                                                                                                                                 
abundant with fish and other
natural marine resources. However, after
the collapse of the Somali central government in 1991, the coast was left
unguarded against foreign intruders. As a result, many ships equipped with
heavy trawls and other unlawful fishing
equipment have occupied in Puntland’s territorial waters. These ships violate catch regulations, including some which keep their catch alive and stock them
in waters where fishing has been depleted. Puntland’s coastal authorities
continue to receive complaints from local fishermen about the damage being done
by these outsiders.

Puntland exports great quantities of seafood such
as lobsters, dried fish, and tuna. Sea salt is also produced.

Other economic products and activities of
Puntland include livestock, frankincense, myrrh, gum arabic, manufacturing and agriculture.[42]

In Las Khorey, there is a
medium size fish processing plant that produces
and processes great quantities of tuna fish. The fish factory’s products are of
commercial quality, and its tuna is consumed throughout Puntland and also
outside the region. Another fish processing plant is also being constructed in
Habo, which locals hope will reduce poverty and unemployment and improve the
area’s economy.